Shrinking the Telescope – “Astronomers in the past 50 years have created wondrous discoveries, expanded our understanding of the universe and opened humanity’s vision beyond the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Our knowledge of how the cosmos was born and how a lot of its phenomena appear has grown exponentially in just one human lifetime. In spite of these terrific strides there remain fundamental questions that are largely unanswered. To further our knowledge of the way our present universe formed after the Big Bang requires a new sort of Observatory having capacities currently unavailable in either present ground-based or space telescopes.”
The larger is better concept is so embodied within our consciousness, that just the notion of smaller more efficient telescope appears to defy all the laws of mathematics. Yet, science supports Miniature Size Telescopes. It is, however, the lock of comprehension of the fundamental principle of focus that’s deprives us over the centuries. Research in this field has provided a full understanding of the science behind optical telescope operation that has led to the design of the next generation of telescopes. The introduction size of miniature telescope will be the size of a viewfinder currently used on present telescopes. However, these new generation of telescopes will posses resolving powerful greater than even the biggest known telescope.
Technique in lens and mirror manufacturing has improved significantly over the centuries. With the aid of computers, lasers, and robotics technologies, optics can be made with precision accuracy. Eventually, the size of telescopes will reduce to wearable device as small as a pair of glasses, in the not so distance future. Telescopes will shortly be comprised of very small (a few centimeters in length) tubes fitted into a headgear. They will have the benefit of precise movement and shock absorbent the human head provides. Wide field of view similar to that of the naked eye, remarkable focus, infinite magnification (limited only by light pollution and disturbance), and brightness allowing snap shot color photographing and live video recording. The design reserves the capability to be up-graded and customized. After almost 400 years of telescope development, we now have a revolutionary breakthrough today capable of reshaping telescopes science and create revolutionary optical devices to shrink football size telescopes to a view finder, and become a set of eyeglasses.
We constantly improve existing technology by making them smaller and more efficient. Oftentimes, smaller more integrated designs increase the wide category of efficiencies. We are now capable of manufacturing instruments on a microscopic scale, with the exception of the optical telescope. Optical telescope is the only instrument that actually grows in size rather then shrink. As we advance in research and development of these instruments, they grow larger in size with each new generation.
However, it is embedded in our heads that we are not able to raise resolution with reduced size in a single design. In regard to this, engineers continue to build bigger and larger instruments, producing monsters and giants. The reason Miniature Size Telescope is deemed hopeless lies not only with optical science, but also with unclear comprehension of the principle of light. We still do not understand the complex interaction involved in both seeing and shooting images, until today. It’s for this doubt, why we still use two unique theories of light. Light is viewed as a particle that accelerates from point A to point B, and light is also viewed as waves that transmit by means of wave motion. Where one theory fails to make sense, another is implemented. Mini Size Telescope is base on ‘Unify Theory of Light’.
The Science – Our eyes are very unique: a young person’s pupil dilates between 7 and 2 millimeters, still, the eye posses the ability to see images several tens of meters in diameter. Our wide field of view provides convincing evidence that we view converging image rays rather than parallel rays. Converging image rays obeys the inverse square law of electromagnetic radiation. Converging beams describe rays that convert towards a point. Therefore, picture carried by these beams reduce their cross sectional area with distance travel. Images collected by the largest telescope aperture, actually enters the couple millimeters of our eyes. Small sight angle (true field) at moments of a degree, so small the brain finds it hard to isolate the details they contain for recognition, when they are factored into our whole field of view. These small-angles of information get compacted inside our large field of view, and seem to be just a little spot or become invisible.
Nevertheless, magnification provides the means by which little sight angles are converted to larger ones. A refractor telescope with an aperture of 30 millimeters and 120 millimeters focal length (focal ratio f/4), offering a magnifying power of 5x times and will have an exit pupil of 5 millimeters. This is a very bright telescope, tapping near the maximum of 7 millimeters opening of the pupil. If a second telescope was constructed, having identical aperture size of 30 millimeters, but have a focal length of 1200 millimeters (f/40). The magnifying power will be 50x times. Instead of a 5 millimeters exit pupil, such telescope will now have an exit pupil of just 0.5 millimeter. From the same formula, to obtain a 50x times magnifying power and an exit pupil of 5 millimeters, the aperture needed is 300 millimeters.
Refractor telescopes can’t acquire a 7 millimeters exit pupil without being affected by aberrations. In order to overcome this, telescope designers try to allocate a balance between magnification and brightness. Resolving power describes this equilibrium. The compromise will lower brightness, but increase magnification power and picture clarity by exactly the same proportion. The ocular plays an important role in finalizing the picture of the apparent field. They are effective at influencing field of view, magnification, and exit pupil (brightness).
From the bigger is better formulation, we know that by increasing the aperture of the objective, we can raise the exit pupil and therefore the brightness of the picture. In designing optical systems, the optical engineer should make tradeoffs in controlling aberrations to accomplish the desired result. Aberrations are any errors that result in the imperfection of a picture. Such errors could result from design or manufacture or both.
Achromatic lenses are developed to reduce color aberration generated whenever white light is refracted, but with even the best designs, colour aberration cannot be totally eliminated. Color aberration also consists of a secondary effect known as the secondary spectrum. Color aberration limits most refractors to a focal ratio of f/15. Reflectors, which is less affected by colour aberration, has focal ration of f/5 for commercial design and f/2.5 for specialist designs. Within known telescope design, the various conditions necessary for image perfection is integrated, thus forcing engineers to compromise to get a close balance that will render the best possible picture.
What if magnification, focus, Mims Squirrel Removal and brightness could be separated? The new formula for âEUR~Miniature Size Telescopes’ isolates each of the factors and allow each to be individually tuned for maximum efficiency.
The Need for Magnifying Power- “The Overwhelmingly Large Telescope (Owl) is an awesome project, which requires international work. This enormous telescope main mirror will be more than 100 meters in diameters and will have resolution 40 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope.
The need for greater magnifying power began with the Galilean design. The race to build the most powerful telescope started at a young age in telescope growth. The greatest minds in the time compete to dominate the shaping of this new technology.
In this age, telescope tubes were made very long. Occasionally, these tubes reach length that renders them unstable. In some cases the tubes were removed from the device’s design. Tubeless telescopes were known as aerial telescopes. As telescope Engineers compete to develop more powerful telescopes, they unknowingly encountered a secondary issue that limits the length and magnification of those ancient ‘refractor’ telescope designs. They notice that pictures became darken with increase magnification. Some how, magnification was reducing the amount of light entering and or exiting the telescope lenses. The explanation for this phenomenon, was that enough light was not leaving the telescope’s ocular, as enough light wasn’t been collected at the objective. An increase in the aperture size increases the exit pupil and the problem of dark image with magnification was solved.
At this stage in telescope development, just Keplerian and Galilean ‘refractor’ telescopes were invented. Lens making was in its early stages and it was difficult to manufacture quality lenses. Large aperture lenses were a bigger challenge. Refractor telescope shortly reach its’ size limit, but that the second section to the formula for high resolving power is known, reflector telescope of many variations was born.
Up to now, nearly 400 years later, the exact same formula is still used. Modem improvements only increase the quality of the optics now use, where modification minimized aberrations. We can now build larger telescopes with resolving power and brightness never taught possible in the time of Galileo, but the formulation used in developing these modem instruments is the same as the earliest designs-bigger is better. The larger is better formulation isn’t without limitations. For instance, colour aberration limits the brightness of a refractor telescope, which demands a focal ratio of f/I 5 to filter out secondary spectrum aberration. The required focal ratio limits the light collecting capabilities of refractors. Reflectors are not affected by secondary spectrum effect. Focal ratio in the range of ff2.5 is reasonable if requiring exit pupil close to 7 millimeters. However, any attempt to increase magnification within these reflector telescopes while maintaining equilibrium, will require growth in the aperture and the focal length in the exact same proportion.
Previous Limitations – Understanding of the principle of lighting has rewarded us with the development of modern optical technologies. The present article is written to present a breakthrough in research and development of Small Powerful Telescopes. Most major telescope manufactures will inform you that magnification is not of significant importance; and that brightness is a more pronounce concern a purchaser should have when shopping for a telescope. Magnification and brightness are equally important for viewing and shooting distant pictures, but the most important factor in rendering details in an image, is focus. Of all of the basic principles involve in capturing an image, focus is less known. The awareness of an image focal point and the way to accomplish a focus image is easily calculated, but what would be the electrodynamics interactions which written a focus image is still unanswered.
All optical devices are layout around focus; therefore it will always be a top priority in the formation of clear image. Magnification and brightness are of secondary importance, they’re the result after focus is reached. It’s the critical distance of attention that determine the maximum brightness and magnification where a picture will be clearly viewed. Magnification refers to the action of converting smaller sight angles (true field) into bigger ones (apparent field), this provide change in the angle at which the image rays are obtained, thus, tricking the mind into believing that the object is either closer or larger then it really is. If it wasn’t for the need for attention, a single convex lens âEUR”a magnifier-would be a telescope capable of infinite zoom magnification, through the action of simply varying the distance it’s held in the eye. Unfortunately, however, there is a critical distant at which images are focus through a single lens or just a system of lenses. This is also referred to as the critical distance of focus.
What is focus? Webster’s Dictionary: fo-cus; is the distinctness or clarity with which an optical system renders an image.
Four Hundred Years History – The discovery of remote magnification was by accident. Early lens maker, Jan Lippershey was experimenting with two different lenses when he discovered the effect of remote magnification. He found that by holding a negative lens near the eye while holding a positive lens in alignment with the first, away from the eye, that distant objects appeared much closer than they would with the naked eye. Since that time, research to understand and explain the science behind these magical devices is still being attempted. Even with today’s technology, telescope designers are still faced with major design limitations and challenges which forge a compromise between telescope size, brightness, and image clarity. Scientists have always been confounded by the nature of light. Sir Isaac Newton regards light as stream of tiny particles traveling in straight line. Dutch scientist Christian Huygens, on the other hand, believed that light consisted of waves in a substance called the ether, which he supposed fill space, including a vacuum. Huygens theory became accepted as the better theory of both. Today, however, scientists think that light consist of a stream of tiny wave pockets of energy called photons.
The Bigger is Better Formula – “Having a telescope which has 10 times the collecting area of every telescope ever built. You would have the ability to go down a few thousand times fainter than the faintest thing you see todayâEUR~s telescopes.”
The formula that formed known telescopes over the centuries of development is really basic, well known, and proven- bigger is better. This is just like saying that larger aperture provides brighter image, while longer focal length provides increased magnification. Let’s set the formula to the test. Can big magnification be obtained with no long focal length objective? The answer is yes. Microscopes provide very large magnification with relatively short focal length objective. Is it feasible to collect light without very large aperture size? Again, the answer is yes. Microscope also demonstrates this. Why is it that microscopes provide great magnification with adequate brightness in a relatively small size, while telescopes cannot? This shows that it isn’t the law of magnification nor brightness, but it the tool’s design limitations that insist upon the concept that bigger is better. A fundamental Keplerian design telescope functions as a microscope when seen through the other end of the tube.
An international standard full size student microscope provides as much as 400x magnifying power, yet this type of microscope is made up of tube less then 20 centimeter in length. So as to obtain equal brightness and magnifying power in a telescope, focal ratio of f/2.5 is recommended for an exit pupil near 7 millimeters. Such telescope will need an aperture of 320 centimeters (3.2 meters) and a focal length of 800 centimeters (8 meters), calculating roughly with a 20 millimeters ocular. This is an increase of nearly 50x in size. This shows that brightness is not limited to large aperture, nor magnification limited to long focal length. Focusing of distant images is more challenging than focusing of close-up images. We can prove this using a single magnifying lens that’s held near the eye. Objects further then 2/3 the focal length of this lens will be out of focus.
All optical systems are design around concentrate. So as to vary magnification and brightness, focus needs to be constant. We may compromise magnification for brightness and visa- a- verse, but we could never undermine focus. Therefore, instead of saying that magnification M is inversely proportional to brightness, it’s also true to say that magnification M is equal to concentrate divided by brightness B, where attention is a constant D.
M = D/B
Magnification power (M) = focus continuous (D) / Brightness (B) Within know optical telescope design, all three variables are incorporated. Focus has been the main factor for rendering a crystal clear image, while magnification and brightness both serves as a secondary element in the appearance of a focused image. The resolving power is used to sum up the performance of a telescope. Magnifying a picture involve extending these dots. Light magnification is significantly different from image magnification, and magnifies by changing the angle of the received picture light.
But there’s the breakthrough question, what if these three important factors could be isolated and individually tuned? Hm mm. Telescope engineering won’t be the same again, and the science of astronomy will explode.